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Bond Economics

The word “money” is very, very ambiguous (maybe the most ambiguous economic word ever? I don’t know). The consequence is that communication is heavily impaired, because usually one person defines money as one thing, and the other as another, and hence no meaningful conversation can take place. There can be non-fiat money and there is a big difference between inside and outside money. When you claim that those facts are actually false, you don’t help the society in advancing important economic and political issues.

This mission creep has lead to many people being confused or even angry about the monetary system. “you just silently and implicitly defined “money.” Did you notice? I believe money to be “a promissory note denominated in units of currency” with the caveat that not all money is equal. In particular, state a unit of account money and bank money are more important in the economy than, say, an IOU from my brother-in-law. Those legal ownership claims are embodied in financial instruments . The terms of those instruments — rights and obligations — are wildly diverse. What do you call a firm’s righthand-side Shareholders’ Equity?

Money As A Unit Of Account

Near monies include what is in savings accounts and money-market mutual funds. The broader category of money that embraces all of these assets is called M2. M3 encompassed M2 plus relatively less liquid near monies. In practice, the measure of M3 is no longer used by the Federal Reserve. Money serves as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, a store of value, and a standard of deferred payment.

  • A “standard of deferred payment” is an acceptable way to settle a debt–a unit in which debts are denominated.
  • In such circumstances, historical values registered in accountancy books become heterogeneous amounts measured in different units.
  • An asset on your balance sheet can have an offsetting liability on another balance sheet.
  • Legal tender describes any official medium of payment recognized by law that can be used to extinguish a public or private debt or meet a financial obligation.

Banks have the legal obligation to return funds held in demand deposits immediately upon demand (or “at call”). Demand deposit withdrawals can be performed in person, via checks or bank drafts, using automatic teller machines , or through online banking. One person can loan a quantity of money to another for a period of time to use, and repay another agreed-upon quantity of money at a future date. The stored value represented by the loaned money is transferred from the lender to the borrower in exchange for an agreed quantity of stored value in the future. The borrower can then use and enjoy the value of other goods and services that they can now purchase in exchange for payment at a later date.

A Medium Of Exchange

You must — there are over 200,000 words in our free online dictionary, but you are looking for one that’s only in the Merriam-Webster Unabridged Dictionary. After dressing and eating breakfast, you leave for work. You stop off at your favorite coffee shop for your morning latte. You’re a bit ticked when you notice that the price for your tall latte has increased by $0.25, but you’re a java addict and order it anyway.

The foreign exchange market determines the relative values of different currencies. For example, it permits a business in the United States to import goods from the European Union member states, especially Eurozone members, and pay Euros. Nearly all contemporary money systems are based on fiat money, which is modern currency that has value only by government order. A unit of account is a standard numerical unit of measurement of the market value of goods, services, and other transactions. For example, in modern times, most countries’ legal tender moneys consistently lose value over time, sometimes rapidly, leading to the social costs associated withinflation. The physical commodity will still have some other use-value, but the primary use of any source of value has in the market is for its use as money. Historically, precious metals like gold and silver were adopted as these kinds of market-determined moneys. Economic money systems began to be developed for thefunction of exchange.

Word Of The Day

Fractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank retains only a portion of its customers’ deposits as readily available reserves from which to satisfy demands for withdrawals. Whenever a bank gives out a loan in a fractional-reserve banking system, a new sum of money is created. This new type of money is what makes up the non-M0 components in the M1-M3 statistics. M1 is the narrowest measure of the money supply, including only money that can be spent directly. More specifically, M1 includes currency and all checkable deposits. Currency refers to the coins and paper money in the hands of the public. Checkable deposits refer to all spendable deposits in commercial banks and thrifts. The foreign exchange market assists international trade and investment by enabling currency conversion. For example, it permits a business in the United States to import goods from the European Union member states, especially Eurozone members, and pay Euros, even though its income is in United States dollars. It also supports direct speculation in the value of currencies, and the carry trade, speculation based on the interest rate differential between two currencies.

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Proceso valorativo

*La autoevaluación

Es la reflexión y regulación autocrítica que permite que el estudiante autodefina sus metas y logros de aprendizaje; esta evaluación busca que la autoformación se consolide desde una perspectiva ética de valores.

*La coevaluación

Apunta a la participacion colectiva y comunitaria en la valoración de los procesos formativos y aprendizajes generados, se articula con la colaboración y trabjao grupal al interior de los Ed o el Doigdag en las comunidades.

*La heteroevaluación

Se realiza desde los diferentes agentes educativos sobre los procesos contextuales, formativos y funcionales para el logro de los alcances de la educación Wounaan.


El plan de estudios se estructura por doigdag, o niveles en el curso de vida. En el plan de estudios se consideran siete (7) doigdag, cada uno con una duración de dos años. Cada uno de ellos comprende cuatro(4) períodos de seis (6) meses denominado Ed, o fases de enseñanza-aprendizaje. En los doigdag se abordan los diferentes ejes temáticos que articulan los conocimientos propios y los conocimientos ajenos, mediante asignaturas-temáticas cuyos contenidos y subtemas se abordan por Ed. De tal forma y en correspondencia con el ciclo de vida wounaan, se indica el progresión del aprendizaje.

Ciclos del Doigdag

En lo cultural, el doigdag es el nivel de conocimiento y cambio de vida en el tiempo actual de un sujeto wounaan. el doigdag simboliza la pintura facial y corporal en las ceremonias espirituales y festividades y representa el recorrido por el cambio de vida para llegar a Ewandam durr.

Los doigdag también incluyen los grados de la educaciòn oficial por dos años, con lo que se obtiene secuencialmente, continuidad y promociòn entre las asignaturas-temáticas y los contenidos de un grado a otro del mismo nivel. 

Ejes Temáticos

La educaciòn del Wounaan, tiene la intencionalidad política de formar a niños, niñas y jóvenes como sujetos comprendidos con su comunidad. En esa medida, los procesos educativos se centran en el fortalecimiento de la identidad y de la cultura propia.
La tierra es mucho màs que el lugar donde se vive, es nuestra madre, Machh Durr, la que nos da vida; por eso nos ebemos a ella y nuestro compromiso es conservarla y cuidarla
En los procesos educativos Wounaan es una prioridad que nuestros niños, niñas y jóvenes se formen en el reconocimiento y capacidad de gestiòn para la protecciòn de sus derechos.


La base de este Eje es la paropiaciòn y fortalecimiento de la lengua propia y el aprendizaje del español como segunda lengua.
Nuestros jóvenes necesitan aprender conocimientos que les sean útiles para sobrevivir en nuestro medio, como pueden ser pescar, recolectar alimentos o tejer la cestería.

Esferas del conocimiento

Para nosotros el conocimiento no es la informaciòn en si, sino que son los sentidos, es el estimulo, la motivaciòn y el ejercicio de nuestra capacidad para escuchar, observar, hacer, crear y re-crear.
En ese sentido, el curriculo lo concebimos como un lugar de movilizaciòn del conocimiento y sus campos de la cultura propia y la interculturalidad, de la educaciòn y la escuela, de la pedagogia y la didactica.
Este propicia el proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje en el contexto mediante la escucha, la observaciòn y el hacer en la práctica comunitaria y pedagógica.